Mei: Snipecicles, ability to regen health and win the 1v1 duel.
Orisa: Halt makes Pharah an easy kill for hitscan, her shield shape and ability to fire at range while dancing in it also means pharah has to catch her off guard.
Symmetra… ehhh maybe her turrets situationally? But otherwise no.
Torb turret, as said, is strong in the right situation. If there’s shielding on the turret and if pharah is un-supported, it severely alters the way she has to play as much as a hitscan. But, again, that’s only in the right situation.
As for the 600 hp bubble, that’s 5 out of 6 rockets before reload. 4-5 seconds of shield break, which is a lot of time in a team fight. Then 1 rocket left before reload, which isn’t enough to kill someone, or reloading when it breaks, which is still more time. That’s a long engage. If your team is helping on the break it’s a lot more manageable though.
He can and does give her trouble, but he’s far from her strongest counter.
Pharah herself is the only hero in game with a self-damaging primary fire and one of 2 heroes with a self-damaging ult. The other one is Tracer, who can blink away/recall/otherwise be hyper mobile.
The self damage is bs. Not that it often kills me, but you’re left with slow projectiles and stronger hitscan at long range, hitscan at medium range is very happy, which is where you’re best, and short range being suicide because you’re just as likely to kill yourself.
Her ulti is useless at long range, easy to counter at mid range, and suicide at short range.